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U.S. Government
Presidential Notes
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Presidency

Notes 1

 

I.  Presidential Powers

 

Executive Order :           A directive, rule, or regulation given by the executive branch that has the effect of law

                                 (Necessary and Expedient Clause)

 

Appointing Power:          3 million civilian jobs are appointed by the Executive Branch.  A handful at the top are made by the President (Ambassadors, cabinet and staff, federal judges, attorneys, officers of armed forces, agencies ie. EPA, NASA…)

 

War Powers:      

        The President may send troops into harms way.  It has been done over 200 times.  John Adams was the first.  He did so to protect merchant ships from the French in the Atlantic and Caribbean.

        During war the Prez. Has more power ie. Rationing food and supplies, control prices and wages, seizing private industries…

 

War Powers Resolution:     In 1973 Congress passed this to limit presidential abuse cited in the Nixon case. 

        Within 48 hours Prez. Must address Congress detailing the scope

        Combat commitment must end within 60 days, may be extended 30 days for withdrawal of troops.

        Congress may bring an end to combat commitment at any time

 

Recognition powers:          Recognizing the legal existence of a country and its government.  Ie. Panama within three days of its creation 1903, Israel within 48 hours of its creation 1948

 

Veto powers:          President may outright veto a bill, or pocket veto, which is when he refuses to act on the bill within 10 days and Congress adjourns within that time.

                                                           

                                                       Most vetoes: 

                                              FDR 635, overrides 9

                       

                                              Bush sr. 46  overrides  1

                                              Reagan   78  overrides 9

                                              Clinton   17  overrides 2